Granted, a small space vegetable garden may not be enough for subsistence farming, but it will be enough to grow great tasting tomatoes, some beautiful heirloom eggplants or an endless supply of cutting greens. If you have limited space, consider what vegetables you can purchase fresh in your area already and what vegetables you truly love and/or miss.
Compact Varieties: If you must have a beefsteak tomato or a row of sweet corn, the variety in your small space vegetable garden will be limited. But you can choose varieties that are bred to grow in small spaces. Anything with the words patio, pixie, tiny, baby or dwarf in their name is a good bet. Just because a plant is bred to be small doesn’t mean the fruits will be small or the yield will be less.
Most seeds and seedlings will tell you the mature size of the plants you are selecting. Knowing that, you can space things out and see how much you can fit into your space. More likely however, you will do what most gardeners do and squeeze in as many seedlings as you can fit into your garden and deal with the crowding later. That’s one way to get a large yield from a small space.
If you are truly short of space, interplant your vegetables with your flowers. There’s no rule that says you can’t mix the two. It can be a bit harder to harvest, but many vegetables are quite ornamental in their own right.
Growing Up: If you do opt for a variety of vegetables in your garden, I would recommend the compact varieties and also vining crops that can be trained up on supports. Pole beans take up less space than bush beans. Vining cucumbers and squash, as aggressive as they can be, actually take up less area than their bush cousins.
Companion Planting: Companion planting is often touted for the benefit of cutting down on pest infestations. It also serves well to conserve space. Shade tolerant plants will benefit from being planted next to taller crops. Basil likes a respite from hot sun and does well next to tomatoes. Lettuce will keep producing all summer if shaded by almost any taller plant. Early harvested crops, like spinach, radishes and peas, can be planted with slower growing crops like broccoli or peppers, which will take over once the spring crops are gone. Companion planting is an art and it can be one of the more fun challenges of gardening. Why limit it to the vegetable garden. Mix your vegetables and flowers.
Succession Planting: Succession planting is a great technique for any vegetable garden large or small. But it is all the more valuable when space is limited. Succession planting means reseeding quick growing crops every 2-3 weeks during the growing season. It is especially popular with crops like beans, zucchini and lettuce, that tend to exhaust themselves producing. By successively planting, you will have just enough produce for your family’s appetite, but you’ll have it all summer.
Crop Rotation: Rotating crops to different areas of the garden each year is an excellent way to cut down on diseases and insect pests that over winter in the soil. This really isn’t possible in small vegetable gardens. You’ll just have to be vigilant about not letting problems get out of hand. If a large scale problem should occur, such as squash beetles or septoria wilt on tomatoes, seriously consider not growing the crop for a year. It will be a sacrifice, but one year without is better than several years of a disappointing crop.